Forskel mellem versioner af "Koordinater"

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1/10 sekund for en breddegrad svarer til ca. 3 m i terrænet. På danske breddegrader svarer 1/10 sekund for en længdegrad til ca. 1½ m i terrænet.
 
1/10 sekund for en breddegrad svarer til ca. 3 m i terrænet. På danske breddegrader svarer 1/10 sekund for en længdegrad til ca. 1½ m i terrænet.
  
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You {should|ought to|can|must|need to} {use|utilize|make use of} {a reliable|a dependable|a reputable|a trustworthy|a trusted} {method|technique|approach|procedure} of {birth|childbirth} {control|command} {during|throughout} {the {whole|entire}|the entire} {period|duration} of taking this {drug|medicine}. {If you take tetracycline {{during|throughout} {pregnancy|maternity}|while pregnant|prenatal} the {effects|results|impacts} for the {unborn|coming} {baby|infant|child} {can|could} be {unpredictable|unforeseeable}. |, if you take tetracycline {during|throughout} {pregnancy|maternity} the {effects|results|impacts} for the {unborn|coming} {baby|infant|child} {can|could} be {unpredictable|unforeseeable}..} #file_links<>links/imp_files/19.08.15.txt",1,S] {If you are {breastfeeding|nursing} you {should|ought to|can|must|need to} {know|understand} that this {drug|medicine} {has|has actually} been {reported|stated|mentioned} to {pass {into|in to}|enter} {breast|bust|boob} milk {causing|triggering|creating|inducing} teeth {discoloration|staining|yellowing} in the nursing {infant|baby}. |, if you are {breastfeeding|nursing} you {should|ought to|can|must|need to} {know|understand} that this {drug|medicine} {has|has actually} been {reported|stated|mentioned} to pass {into|in to} {breast|bust|boob} milk {causing|triggering|creating|inducing} teeth {discoloration|staining|yellowing} in the nursing {infant|baby}. 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You {{need|require|really need} to|have to|should} {mention|discuss|point out|state} the {fact|truth|reality} of having {a bleeding|a blood loss} #file_links<>links/imp_files/19.08.15.txt",1,S] {disorder|condition|ailment}, {blood clotting|blood clot} {disorder|condition|ailment}, {mononucleosis, liver or {kidney|renal|renal system}|mononucleosis, {kidney|renal|renal system} or liver|liver, mononucleosis or {kidney|renal|renal system}|liver, {kidney|renal|renal system} or mononucleosis|{kidney|renal|renal system}, mononucleosis or liver|{kidney|renal|renal system}, liver or mononucleosis} {disease|illness|condition}, asthma. {A number of|A variety of|A lot of} {medical|clinical|health care} {conditions|problems|disorders} {may|might|could} {interact|communicate|connect} with Ultram, {specifically|particularly|especially} {pregnancy|maternity}, liver, {kidney|renal|renal system}, or {thyroid|thyroid gland} {problems|issues|troubles}, bladder {blockage|obstruction|clog}, breastfeeding, taking {{any|any type of|any kind of|any sort of} {other|various other}|other} {drugs|medicines} or {preparations|prep works|plannings}, {metabolism|metabolic process|metabolic rate} or #file_links<>links/imp_files/19.08.15.txt",1,S] prostate {problems|issues|troubles}, {history|past|record} of breathing {problems|issues|troubles}, or a seizure {disorder|condition|ailment}. 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+
=== UTM ===
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 +
UTM står for ''Universal Transverse Mercator''. UTM-koordinaterne er udtrykt i meter. En typisk position kunne være''32U 0587454 6140071''. Groft sagt peger disse koordinater på et sted der ligger 6140 km 71 m nord for ækvator, og 587 km 454 m øst for meridianen 9° øst for Greenwich, idet 500000 i zone 32 peger direkte på meridianen 9° øst. Positionen er et sted midt i Odense.
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 +
Læs mere i [http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Transverse_Mercator Dansk Wikipedias beskrivelse af UTM]
  
 
== Omregning af koordinater ==
 
== Omregning af koordinater ==

Versionen fra 11. sep 2015, 09:05

Et geografisk koordinatsæt er et punkt i et koordinatsystem, der dækker hele jordens overflade. Der findes en lang række geografiske koordinatsystemer, der typisk udpeger en position med to, tre eller fire grupper af tal og bogstaver. Oftest benyttes to eller tre grupper til at angive en horisontal placering, mens et koordinatsystem der også angiver højde, benytter een gruppe til højdeangivelsen. Til geocaching benyttes WGS 84. I dette system repræsenteres et punkt ved en længdegrad og en breddegrad.

Formater

Gradinddeling

HDDD° MM.mmm'

Det standardformat der bruges i geocaching-sammenhæng. Består af

  • H : halvkugle (N/S for breddegrader og E/W for længdegrader)
  • DDD : grader (hele positive tal - mellem 0 og 90 for breddegrader og mellem 0 og 180 for længdegrader)
  • MM : minutter (underinddeling af grader i 60 minutter - dvs. et tal mellem 0 og 59)
  • mmm : decimaler til minutter (tusindddele minutter - dvs. et tal mellem 000 og 999)

1/1000 minut for en breddegrad svarer til knap 2 m i terrænet. På danske breddegrader svarer 1/1000 minut for en længdegrad til ca. 1 m i terrænet. Standardkoordinater til geocaching kan derfor aldrig blive mere nøjagtige end inden for et par meter, selv hvis man forestiller sig fejlfri visning med GPS-udstyret.

DDD.ddddd°

Grader som decimaltal. Her er der fastlagt at breddegrader nord for ækvator noteres som positive tal, og at længdegrader øst for 0-meridianen (længdegraden gennem Greenwich) tilsvarende noteres som positive tal.

HDDD° MM' SS.s"

Som ovenfor - dog er mmm nu erstattet af SS.s

  • SS : sekunder (underinddeling af minutter i 60 sekunder - dvs. et tal mellem 0 og 59)
  • s : decimal til sekunder (tiendedele sekunder - dvs et tal mellem 0 og 9)

1/10 sekund for en breddegrad svarer til ca. 3 m i terrænet. På danske breddegrader svarer 1/10 sekund for en længdegrad til ca. 1½ m i terrænet.

UTM

UTM står for Universal Transverse Mercator. UTM-koordinaterne er udtrykt i meter. En typisk position kunne være32U 0587454 6140071. Groft sagt peger disse koordinater på et sted der ligger 6140 km 71 m nord for ækvator, og 587 km 454 m øst for meridianen 9° øst for Greenwich, idet 500000 i zone 32 peger direkte på meridianen 9° øst. Positionen er et sted midt i Odense.

Læs mere i Dansk Wikipedias beskrivelse af UTM

Omregning af koordinater

Omregning mellem formater

Omregning mellem forskellige formater er basalt set et spørgsmål om at gange eller dividere med 60.

De følgende eksempler tager udgangspunkt i koordinaterne til COPENHAGEN CITY

I HDDD° MM.mmm' formattet hedder koordinaterne N 55° 40.464 E 012° 34.685.

Breddegraden er altså N55° 40.464, svarende til:

  • H = N (nord)
  • DDD er 55
  • MM er 40
  • mmm er 464

Skal dette regnes om til DDD.ddddd° skal vi dividere 40.464 med 60, hvilket giver 0.6744. Breddegradden kan dermed skrives som 55.6744°

Skal der i stedet regnes om fra HDDD° MM.mmm' til HDDD° MM' SS" skal vi regne den modsatte vej. Minutdelen af breddegradden er 40.464 - altså 40 minutter og 464/1000 minutter. Et minut består af 60 sekunder , så her skal vi gange 0.464 med 60 - hvilket givet 27.84 eller afrundet til hele sekunder 28. Breddegradden i eksemplet kan dermed skrives som N55° 40' 28" ( HDD° MM' (0.mmm*60)" )

Skal der omregnes om fra HDDD° MM' SS" til HDDD° MM.mmm' skal sekunderne (SS) omregnes til en decimaldel af minutter, dette gøres ved at dele med 60. Altså HDDD° MM+(SS/60)', f.eks: N55° 40' 28" = N55° 40+(28/60)' = N55° 40.467'. Bemærk at .mmm er en mere nøjagtig angivelse end SS (mmm er tusindedele, hvos SS er tressenstyvendedele), derfor vil man ikke altid ende med samme resultat, hvis man regner frem og tilbage. Tager flere decimaler med, vil man få et mere nøjagtigt resultat: N55° 40+(27.84/60)' = N55° 40.464'

Omregning mellem DDD.ddddd° og HDDD° MM' SS" i to omgange via HDDD° MM.mmm' formattet. Altå først DDD.ddddd° til HDDD° MM.mmm' og dernæst HDDD° MM.mmm' til HDDD° MM' SS".

Omregning mellem gradtal og UTM

Omregning mellem gradtal og UTM er en kompliceret affære, som i praksis kræver adgang til særligt software. Brug GPSBabel eller nogle af tilbuddene i listen over eksterne henvisninger.

Det sproglige

Ordet koordinat stammer fra matematikken, hvor det betegner en afstand ud ad en akse. Et sædvanligt koordinatsystem på et stykke papir har to akser: den vandrette x-akse og den lodrette y-akse. Når man afsætter et punkt i et koordinatsystem, skal man derfor angive to tal. De to tal kaldes koordinaterne. Der er to af dem - derfor siger man koordinaterne.

Ordet koordinat kan være både et n-ord og et t-ord; Retskrivningsordbogen anerkender begge former. I nutidens matematikundervisning i gymnasiet er et koordinat nok mest sædvanligt, mens ældre lærebøger brugte en koordinat. Blandt danske geocachere er et koordinat næsten enerådende.

Inden for geocaching er de to koordinater der bestemmer et punkt, som regel bredde og længde - fx N 55° 37.000' - E 012° 30.205'. Mange geocachere bruger betegnelsen koordinatet om det samlede koordinatsæt, ikke om breddekoordinatet og længdekoordinatet hver for sig. Den sprogbrug afspejler et skred i betydningen af ordet koordinat, som en matematiklærer ville anse for en fejl.

Betydningen er skredet videre end det, idet mange geocachere bruger udtrykket koordinatet ikke kun om de tal der angiver en position i verden, men også om selve positionen, fx i udtrykket Cachen lå ikke på koordinatet eller Når du kommer til startkoordinatet, skal du ....


Datum

Uddybende artikel: Datum

Et datum er en en matematisk beskrivelse af jordens form og en angivelse af nulpunktet for koordinaterne. På grund af rotation er Jorden er ikke en perfekt kugle, så for at kunne angive en præcis placering, er det nødvendigt at medtage en matematisk model for udbulingen ved ækvator.

Til geocaching skal du sikre dig at din gps-modtager er indstillet til at benytte WGS 84.


Eksterne henvisninger